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Sullivan. 2004. ?Inclusion of Cost Effectiveness in Licensing Requirements of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle.?? British Medical Journal 329: 972?75. Using the Flagship Framework to Reform Pharmaceutical Policy 33 Van de Graaf, J. 1957. Theoretical Welfare Economics. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. WHO (World Health Organization) and HAI (Health Action International). 2008. Measuring Medicine Prices, Availability, Affordability and Price Components. 2nd ed. Geneva: WHO and HAI. 34 Nexium Mg Online Nexium Pharmaceutical Reform CHAPTER 3 Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Sector Any effort to reform pharmaceutical policy must take into account several broad trends affecting the sector, especially patterns in the world pharma- ceutical market, the emergence of new producers in middle-income countries, the drive toward consolidation in the research and development? oriented industry, and con?icts over product pricing. 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